Bone Marrow Transplant

Meenakshi mission hospital in Madurai is the first among the Southern districts to have the facility for bone marrow transplantation.

BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT:

The soft fatty tissue inside bones that produces blood cells is called Bone marrow. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells.

TYPES OF BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT:

There are three kinds of bone marrow transplants,

Autologous bone marrow transplant:

In this procedure, stem cells are removed from the patient’s own body (auto- self) before the patient receives a high dose of radiation or chemotherapy. The cells are stored in a freezer and are later put back into the patient’s body where they again become normal blood cells.

Allogeneic bone marrow transplant:

In this procedure, stem cells are removed from another person called donor(allo- other). Tests are done to check if the donor’s genes match with the patient’s genes. National bone marrow registries are also used to find out the donors.

Umbilical cord bone marrow transplant:

It is a type of allogenic bone marrow transplant. In this procedure, stem cells are removed from a newborn baby’s umbilical cord after birth. Stem cells are frozen and stored until they are needed for transplant. As it has a limited number of blood-forming cells, this procedure is more often used in children than adults and elders.

HOW IS THE PROCEDURE DONE?

The patient is first evaluated and the practitioner decides the type of treatment. Bone marrow cells are then collected from the source. Existing bone marrows are completely destroyed to help the patient receive new cells. Chemotherapy is done and new cells are infused through the intravenous route.

Bone marrow transplant is used to treat conditions like, Lymphoma, leukemia, Aplastic anaemia, Pure red cell aplasia, Thalassemia, Sickle cell anaemia, metabolic disorders, Congenital Thrombocytopenia, and several autoimmune and blood diseases.